INDIA is the first country in the world to have started scientific management of its forests. During the year 1864 the then British India Government started the Imperial Forest Department and appointed Dr. Dietrich Brandis, a German Forest officer Inspector General of Forests in 1866. Having recognized the need to have a premier forest service to manage the varied natural resources of the vast country and to organize the affairs of the Imperial Forest Department, Imperial Forest Service was constituted in 1867. Having realized the importance of a multi-tier forest Administration in the federal and provincial Governments for effective management of forest resources the British India Government also constituted Provincial Forest Service and Executive & Subordinate Services, which were quite similar to the present day forest administrative hierarchy. The officers appointed to the Imperial Forest Service from 1867 to 1885 were trained in France and Germany. Thereafter, until 1905 they were trained at Cooper's Hill, London, which had been one of the prestigious professional colleges of Forestry at that time. From 1905 to 1926 the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh had undertaken the task of training the officers of the Imperial Forest Service. The Imperial Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, presently & popularly known all over the world as FRI was established at Dehra Dun in the year 1906. The baton to train the IFS officers was passed on to Forest Research Institute, which it did successfully from 1927 to 1932. Subsequently the Indian Forest College (IFC) was established in the year 1938 at Dehra Dun and the officers recruited to the Superior Forest Service by the provinces/states were trained there. The Indian Forest Service, one of the three All India Services, was constituted in the year 1966 under the All India Services Act, 1951 by the Government of India. The main mandate of the service is the implementation of the National Forest Policy which envisages scientific management of forests and to exploit them on a sustained basis for primary timber products, among other things. Since 1935 the management of the forests remained in the hands of the Provincial Governments and even today the Forest Departments are managing the forests of the country under the respective State governments.

Jharkhand state has been created on 15thNov, 2000 from the Bihar state. In united Bihar the headquarter of state forest department was in Ranchi due to major forest area exists in Chotanagpur, Santhal Pargana and Palamu Region.

Jharkhand with a geographical area of 79,714 kmē constitutes 2.42% of the country's area. The total recorded forest area of the state is 23,605 kmē which is 29.61% of the geographical area of the state. Of the total recorded forest area, Reserved Forests constitute 18.58%, Protected Forests 81.28%, and Unclassed Forests 0.14%. As per State of Forest Report of Forest Survey of India, forest cover in the state is 22,977 kmē which is 28.82% of the state's geographical area. The total forest and tree cover put together, it constitutes about 32.48% of the geographical area of the state against the national average of 23.81%. Jharkhand Forest Department is one of the important administrative departments of the State with its Headquarters at Ranchi. The department is entrusted with all matters pertaining to forests and forestry; including protecting and conserving forest & wildlife resources of the state through scientific forest management practices within the ambit of policies, acts and rules in vogue.

The conservation of forest wealth has become a major challenge in the whole of the country, including the state of Jharkhand, because of ever-increasing pressures on already declining forest resources. As a result of burgeoning population and consequent landlessness, the pressure on the available land resources has been increasing day by day leading to encroachment of forestland, which has become a major threat to the conservation of forest and its resources. In many places, it has led to fragmentation of forest areas, honeycombing of forest areas, loss of corridor for movement of wild animals etc. Forest Fire, Smuggling of timber and poaching of wild animals have now emerged as the most serious threats to the forest resources of the state. It has become difficult to manage these threats with the existing manpower, infrastructure and financial resources

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